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dc.contributor.authorKomosný, Dan
dc.contributor.authorPang, Paul
dc.contributor.authorMehic, Miralem
dc.contributor.authorVozňák, Miroslav
dc.date.accessioned2017-07-26T05:45:55Z
dc.date.available2017-07-26T05:45:55Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.citationISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2017, vol. 6, issue 6, art. no. 155.cs
dc.identifier.issn2220-9964
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10084/117194
dc.description.abstractDevice-independent Internet spatial location is needed for many purposes, such as data personalisation and social behaviour analysis. Internet spatial databases provide such locations based the IP address of a device. The free to use databases are natively included into many UNIX and Linux operating systems. These systems are predominantly used for e-shops, social networks, and cloud data storage. Using a constructed ground truth dataset, we comprehensively evaluate these databases for null responses, returned country/region/city, and distance error. The created ground truth dataset differs from others by covering cities with both low and high populations and maintaining only devices that follow the rule of one IP address per ISP (Internet Service Provider) and per city. We define two new performance metrics that show the effect of city population and trustworthiness of the results. We also evaluate the databases against an alternative measurement-based approach. We study the reasons behind the results. The data evaluated comes from Europe. The results may be of use for engineers, developers and researchers that use the knowledge of geographical location for related data processing and analysis, such as marketing.cs
dc.format.extent1687714 bytes
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoencs
dc.publisherMDPIcs
dc.relation.ispartofseriesISPRS International Journal of Geo-Informationcs
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi6060155cs
dc.rights© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.cs
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/cs
dc.subjectspatial locationcs
dc.subjectdevice independentcs
dc.subjectIP addresscs
dc.subjectgeolocationcs
dc.subjectdatabasecs
dc.subjectlocation-awarecs
dc.subjectcity populationcs
dc.subjectinternetcs
dc.titleEvaluation of device-independent internet spatial locationcs
dc.typearticlecs
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/ijgi6060155
dc.rights.accessopenAccess
dc.type.versionpublishedVersioncs
dc.type.statusPeer-reviewedcs
dc.description.sourceWeb of Sciencecs
dc.description.volume6cs
dc.description.issue6cs
dc.description.firstpageart. no. 155cs
dc.identifier.wos000404525800001


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© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.