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dc.contributor.authorDanihelka, Pavel
dc.contributor.authorVolná, Zdeňka
dc.contributor.authorJones, Jenny M.
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Alan
dc.identifier.citationInternational journal of energy research. 2003, vol. 27, issue 13, p. 1181-1203.en
dc.description.abstractA study of the trace elements emission (As, Se, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn, Hg, TI, Pb, Ni, Sn, Sb, V, Mn and Fe) from pulverized coal combustion has been made at six heating and power stations situated in the Czech Republic. The amount of chlorine in coal has considerable influence on volatilization of some elements such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg and TI, which is explained by the formation of thermodynamically stable compounds of these elements with chlorine. Generally, the affinities for Cl follows the order Tl > Cu > Zn > Pb > Co > Mn > Sn > Hg. The experimental data indicates enrichment of some of the trace toxic elements in the emissions (Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sit, Sb, Hg and Pb) and good agreement was obtained by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations with a few exceptions. In the case of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Sri calculated values are overestimated in the bottom ash and there are zero predicted amounts of these elements in the fly ash. In comparison, the results from experiments show up to 80% of these elements retained in fly ash. This implies that there exist additional steps leading to the enrichment by Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Sn of small particles. Such mechanisms could include the ejection during devolatilization of small inorganic particles from the coal of bottom ash particles, or disintegration of the char containing these metals to small particles of fly ash. On the other hand, there are slightly overestimated or similar values of relative enrichment factors for As, V, Cu, Cd, Sb, TI and Pb in the fly ashes and zero predicted values for bottom ashes. Our experimental results show about 5% or less of these elements are retained in bottom ashes, so they probably remain in the bottom ash inside unburned parts of coal.en
dc.relation.ispartofseriesInternational journal of energy researchen
dc.subjectpulverized coalen
dc.subjectequilibrium calculationen
dc.subjecttoxic metalsen
dc.titleEmission of trace toxic metals during pulverized fuel combustion of Czech coalsen
dc.identifier.locationNení ve fondu ÚKen

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